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Ash'torian is an analytic, non-declined lanugage of Ra-Ledis origin within the Continuation universe.  It was originated by native speakers of Vunizh and Ránlan but purposefully encoded and transformed from these languages so that it is not a natural descendant of either.  It is the native language of the Ash'torians.  It originated c. 2000-1800 BE.

Grammar OverviewEdit

Standard Ash'torian word order is subject-verb-object-indirect object: "I gave the book to him."  Where meaning is unambiguous, subject and object order may be reversed for emphasis: "The book gave I to him."  Adjectives usually follow the words they modify.  Articles precede nouns.

Pronouns are declined.  Except for singular and plural forms, nouns are not.  Verbs are conjugated in a Latinate pattern.

OrthographyEdit

Ash'torian natively uses the Vunizh letters but for sacred text, Ash'torians often use a unique set of runes derived from Ránlan phonetic script. 

Ash'torian use of diacritical marks evolved over time.  Early Aejdarian does not use apostrophes; however, later Ash'torian places an aprostrophe before the stressed syllable in a multisyllabic word; for example, "Ash'tor" is pronounced "Ash-TOR."

Later Ash'torian also hyphenates prepositional phrases and nouns-adjectives: example, "the meadow-green."

PronunciationEdit

Vowels:            a: as in all

                        ah: longer a

                        e (or é at the end of a word): as in bed

                        i: as in see

                        o: as in cost (close to long o, as in British)

                        u: as in rule

                        y: as in in

                        ae: as in ice

                        û: long "oo"

Consonants as in English but note:

                        q: as in cat

                        qu: as in quick

                        ch: as in church

                        c: always hard

                        j: may be pronounced hard or as in French, depending on dialect.

                        h: not pronounced in ah, unless followed by a vowel.

Stress is generally on the last syllable. (In archaic Aejdarian, it was more commonly on the first.)

Selected DictionaryEdit

Key:

K: Keshnul

R: Ránlan

V: Vunizh

cf: confer (see also)

 

adj. --> -m

diminutive --> -on

person/doer --> -é (m), -em (f)

son of --> Y’

daughter of --> T(e)’

(archaic: medial v for b)

 

about: té

across: dé (R)

adult: ban’zej (over man/woman)

after: na’ja (R)

all: o’hah (R)

and: e

art: sahn

as: qahb (K: like)

away: ha

back: ré

battle: ned

to be: qes

to be able: fom’ho (R)

beautiful: qal’hahm

beauty: qal’hah

because: a’qo

become: yo

before: fe’hah

belonging to a group: -oq; arch. -eq

beyond: deb’rah (very across)

block: qled

bond: hah’da

boy: ych

brave: no’hoq (V: fine)

brief: dae’tes

brightness: hol

brother: dael’shoq

but: myt

by: seq

by: (prefix) yq

chance (opportunity): fahr’den

child: y’jeb

clan: jar’qah (thank the up)

to climb: bes’qo

consciousness: ahme’tat

cousin: a’dan

to come: jo

to correct: y’bo (R: true)

to dance: en’zo

dance: en’zah

dark: ja’hem

daughter: tem

day: myn

death: quol’ha

desert: besyn

to die: quol’ho

dragon: moq

eight: ehl

eleven: chy’nyn

to end: aeb’ro

enemy: da’zor (not friend)

enraptured: chae’tahm

evil: zah’cha

eye: dy’hah (R)

face: tahm

faithful: tah’hon (D)

family: bré (R)

father: en’cheq

to feel: ahsh’lo

to fight: mah’do

fire: be’lyq

five: yf

flower: chy’bah

follower: naha’bé

food: qe’lahq

fortune: jo’zé (R: joy)

forward: te’nyq

four: ehn

free: bah’mahm

friend: zor

from: ten (resident of)

to fulfill: yol’cho

to fly: quo’do

galaxy: ae’bor

garden: mah’dah

girl: tem

to give: ah’do

to go: abo

god: chae

God: (supreme) tra’hae

goddess: chaem

gods-and-men: chaeba’ner

gold: shah

good: hahch

grass: lex

gray: e’shû (R)

great: tahch (V)

green: do’nû (R)

ground: ûrn (V)

group: qa’bah (R: team)

harbor: mor

to hate: yen’to

hate: yent

to have: o’no

he: é

to hear: ût’ro

heart: dae’quah (R)

help (n): ahb

high: hahr

hill: qym

home: ten’dah

honor: jen

to hope: bah’no

hostage: dazeqe’boq (kept enemy)

how: qué

human: be’noq

hundred: chyn’chyn

to hunt: qaem’lo

hunter: qaem’lé

husband: zo’noq

I: bé

in: û’da (R)

island: heh’broh (V)

it: (nom.) ed

to journey: que’no 

journey: qen

joy: jûs (R)

to keep: qe’bo

king: he’noq

knife: jo’bor (long star)

to know: a’ho

law: chu’ah

to lead: he’jo

leader: he’jé

to lie (down): dae’do

light: a’shûr (R)

life: fahn (R: wind; conflation from D: life)

like (as): qev

to live: fah’no

long: jor

to love: mer’bo

love: merb

low: maej (R)

to make: hû’ro (R: do)

man: ba’né

many:  so’dor (V)

message: he’lej

messenger: he’lé

metal: la’neb

mind: ahm

moon: hob’ren

mother: mei’em

mountain: len (V)

nation: ya’tah (cf. K)

nature: my’dah

navigator: tar’bé

to need: fe;cho

new: hahz

night: ahr’hû

nine: han

no: dah

north: qahm

not: dah

now: jûm

of: en

old: zo’hon

one: yn

or: chahm

out of: yz

over: zej

path: na’quon

parent: sy’gah

past: na’chyq

planet: ûr’hah (V: world)

poet: ahm’hé

precious: enzah’les (fr. Enzah)

priest(ess): e’bé(m) (V: seer)

pulsar: bel’nah

to push: ahe’jo (R: to move)

question (enclitic): -mé

rapture: chae’taht (god-sight)

red: te’dyn

river: ae’quon

sailor: aejbe’né

sand: jyd

to say: ho’qo

to see: to

seer: to’né

self (reflexive): -ré

to sell: an’bo

seven: ym

she: em

ship: rah’yah

shrine: ze’hen

sight: taht

silent: û’chen (V)

to sing: do’so

sister: dael’shem

six: ev

sky: fah’reh (V)

son: ych

song: qu’rah

soul: me’hech (V)

south: lahr

space: zor’mah

to spear: sor’qo

spear: sorq

speech: bohch (V)

speed: chaeb’la

to spin: el’no

star: bor

strong: deh’rom

sun: lon (D)

surrender to god: yor

to swim: chah’no

tale: mae’chah

tall: hahr

ten: chyn

to thank: jaro

that (relative): mé

the: trah

therefore: tar’qah

they: mer

thirteen: che’nyn

this: yé (K)

three: chen

time: dem’bah

to: ej (R: by)

to turn: je’qo

tree: her’shah (V)

true: tah’hon (D:faithful, A: faithful)

turn: jeq

The Turn: tra’jeq

twelve: chy’byn

two: yb

up: qah

universe: qer’nah (cf. K)

very: braht

voice: ched (V)

to walk: brah’sho

wall: mahch

to wander: quel’no

wanderer: quel’né

war: qe’jen

warrior: qeje’né

water: aej

way: nahq

we: ber

to weave: baha’bo

west: bord

what: ûd

when: choq

who (interrogative): ahl

who (relative): ben

whole: qer’yam (V)

why: mar’hah

wife: hah’qem

will: yer

willing: yen

willingness: ye’na

wind: fan (R)

winding: quo’noom

with: beh

woman: ba’nem

world: shab

worship: aq (V)

Ybian (alien species): Yben’shi

yes: ché

you (formal & pl.): cher

you (informal, sg.): ba’ya (R)

young: moor’ham (R)

 

Unique Vocabulary:

Naha’jûn: subliminal telepathic collective uniting Ash’tor.

 

Naha’jé (fem. Naha’jem): high leader of Ash’tor

 

Naha’joq: one of the Naha’jûn (arch. Nahajûneq)